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   likely while climbing at this altitude. The captain pulled the thrust levers to idle and pitched up, stalling the airplane. This resulted in crashing the airplane and killing all 11 people on board. Another fatal accident that ap- pears to be loss of control comes from Atlas Air Flight 3591. Atlas Air lost a Boeing 767 freighter near Houston, Texas on February 23, 2019 when a pilot, who became disoriented in IMC and turbulence, pitched the aircraft to 50 degrees nose down and exceeded 400 knots.
The Latest Guidance
The new guidance implemented by the FAA in March 2019 and March 2020 via AC 120-109A now requires all Part 121 Air Carriers to receive “instructor- guided, hands-on experience” in stall recognition and recovery. The ground training must include a review of stall factors such as weight, G loading, CG, bank angle, altitude, icing effects, in- adequate monitoring of autof light modes, airplane specific knowledge, and malfunctioning equipment. Simu- lator or f light training must include maneuvering without automation (au- topilot and autothrottles), slow flight, climbs, descents, impending stalls, full stalls, upset recovery, airspeed and other malfunctions, task-based training, and scenario-based training. While airline pilots certainly had stall recovery training prior to the changes, the new requirements replicate train- ing seen at a university flight school in a Cessna or Cirrus more so than an airline training program.
The FAA has also changed the stall recovery procedure. Rather than doing everything simultaneously, the FAA
now directs the recovery to be done in sequence, with emphasis on reducing the airplane’s angle of attack (AOA). This is a drastic change from training before 2012 when we would “power out of a stall” in jets with minimal altitude loss.
Here is the new recovery procedure (2-5. RECOVERY PROCEDURES. AC 120-109A):
• Disconnecting the autopilot and
autothrottle/autothrust systems;
• Reducing the airplane’s AOA
• Controlling roll after reducing the
airplane AOA;
• Managing thrust appropriately; and
• Returning the airplane to the de-
sired flight path.
Table 1 and “Notes” in the appendix
of the AC provide the “associated ratio- nale” for each step of the procedure. For example, reducing the angle of attack prior to rolling the wings level will allow the wing to return to fly- ing, ailerons to become effective, and enable the airplane to roll to level in coordinated f light. This will also help avoid uncoordinated flight or a second- ary stall. The AC repeatedly states: “Reduction of AOA must be paramount in all stall prevention and recovery procedures.” Some airlines have at- tempted to simplify the process by using the mnemonic:
• Automation off;
• Push (reduce AOA);
• Roll (wings level);
• Thrust (manage thrust);
• Stabilize (return to a desired
state of flight).
 Be a student of stalls and loss of control. Seek some basic spin and aerobatic training.
Jet Journal December 2020 / TWIN & TURBINE • 19

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